This book highlights essential concepts in connection with the traditional bat algorithm and its recent variants, as well as its application to find optimal solutions for a variety of real-world engineering and medical problems. Today, swarm intelligence-based meta-heuristic algorithms are extensively being used to address a wide range of real-world optimization problems due to their adaptability and robustness. Developed in 2009, the bat algorithm (BA) is one of the most successful swarm intelligence procedures, and has been used to tackle optimization tasks for more than a decade. The BA?s mathematical model is quite straightforward and easy to understand and enhance, compared to other swarm approaches. Hence, it has attracted the attention of researchers who are working to find optimal solutions in a diverse range of domains, such as N-dimensional numerical optimization, constrained/unconstrained optimization and linear/nonlinear optimization problems. Along with the traditional BA, its enhanced versions are now also being used to solve optimization problems in science, engineering and medical applications around the globe.